The Revolutionary War in Bergen County
In the early 1770s, the British Parliament passed a number of laws intended to impose next taxes on the American colonies that resulted in outbreaks of violence in Boston. For instance, on December 1773, disguised colonists protested the Tea Act by dumping imported tea into Boston Harbor (the Boston Tea Party). Other “Intolerable Acts” both preceded and followed the Tea Act. To address their grievances with Britain, colonial leaders proposed forming a Continental Congress with delegates from the 13 colonies.
Once the center of the war moved south from New England, Bergen County became a highly contested region. Having occupied New York City early in the war, the British had almost continual control of the southern part of Bergen County (now Hudson County) and an ability to send forces northward. In the very north of the county, along the Ramapo River, the Patriot forces had almost complete control and an ability to send forces south. Those in the middle, in much of present-day Bergen County, endured guerrilla-like warfare from 1776 into the early 1780s.
Residents of Bergen County were not unified in a desire for independence. Differences of opinion, and of allegiances, existed among citizens and even within families. Some supported the Patriot cause (Whigs, Rebels) and others supported continued government by England (Tories, Loyalists). The majority, however, were indifferent and wished only for the fighting to end.
On June 25, 1774, a meeting held in Hackensack to support the formation of the Continental Congress resolved:
This meeting being deeply affected with the calamitous condition of the inhabitants of Boston, and considering the alarming tendency of the acts of the British Parliament for the purpose of raising revenue in America, resolves that this meeting thinks it their greatest happiness to live under the government of the illustrious house of Hanover and that they will steadfastly and uniformly bear true and faithful allegiance to His Majesty, King George III, in the enjoyment of their constitutional rights and privileges, that they conceive it to be their privilege to be taxed only by their own consent, and that they will heartily unite with others in the colony to elect delegates to attend a general congress from the several provinces of America to try to determine upon some effectual amendment for obtaining a repeal of the acts of Parliament, which appear to the meeting so evidently calculated to destroy that mutual harmony and dependence between Great Britain and her colonies, which are the basis and support of both. (29 nja 411)
By contrast, the Patriot Bergen County Committee of Correspondence resolved on May 12, 1775:
We will not submit to those Acts of Parliament which impose Taxes on us without our consent, and deprive use of our Constitutional Rights and Privileges; and therefore do associate under the Ties of Honor, and Love to our Country, that we will abide by and endeavour to carry into Execution all Constitutional Measures whatsoever, which may be advised by the Continental Congress, and recommended by the Provincial Convention for the Purpose of preserving our Constitution and opposing the several oppressive Act of Parliament (pjfbc 125, 128–29)
In the spring of 1776, General George Washington marched with 18,000 Continental Army troops from Boston to New York City and western Long Island. By June, a British fleet had arrived in New York Harbor with 30,000 troops under General William Howe. While preparing his Continental Army for a major British attack, Washington wrote:
There are some also, of very dangerous characters, who I am informed are lurking in the neighbourhood of Hackensack and what they call the English Neighborhood (Leonia); . . . [their arrest] is now become the more necessary, as from the intelligence I have this day received, there is the greatest reason to believe that the enemy intend to begin their operations in a very few days, and that with a very powerful force. (5 gw 388)
The British troops moved to western Long Island in late August, where they surrounded the Continental Army and defeated it in battle. Washington’s army escaped by night across the water to Manhattan. The British spent September and October pushing the Continental forces into Westchester County. With the British now occupying New York City, Washington expected them also to move into northern New Jersey. He wrote to General Nathanael Greene in early November 1776:
As the enemy have drawn great relief from the forage and provisions they have found in the country, and which our tenderness spared, you will do well to prevent their receiving any fresh supplies, by destroying it if the inhabitants will not drive off their stock, and remove the hay, grain, etc., in time. Experience has shown that a contrary conduct is not of the least advantage to the poor inhabitants, from who all their effects of every kind are taken without distinction and without satisfaction. (6 gw 257–58)
In November, Washington moved the main body of his troops across the Hudson River to Hackensack, leaving a force of 7,000 troops in Westchester under General Charles Lee and 3,000 at Peekskill under Major-General William Heath. Heath was to protect a major fortification at Fort Montgomery (Bear Mountain). On November 13, Heath sent 400 soldiers to establish Camp Ramapaugh at Sidman’s Bridge in the Clove north of Suffern. Some 5,000 British troops crossed the Hudson at New Dock (Huyler’s Landing at Cresskill) on November 20. General Greene evacuated Patriot troops from Fort Lee to Hackensack before the British arrived. On November 21, Washington abandoned Hackensack and began the long march through New Jersey to the Delaware River and Pennsylvania. During the march, they crossed through Saddle River, Acquackanonk Landing (Passaic), Newark, and New Brunswick. The British meanwhile set up military posts in Hackensack, New Brunswick, Princeton, and Trenton. The Reverend Dirck Romeyn wrote , concerning the events of November 22, 1776:
About noon the British took possession of Hackensack and in the afternoon the church green was covered with Hessians, a horrid frightful sight with their whiskers, brass caps and kettles or brass drums. (Romeyn, Hackensack Church, 27)
Colonel Ebenezer Huntington, a Continental officer stationed near Suffern’s Tavern, wrote on November 24:
By the best information the greatest part of the people [of Bergen County] are friendly to the British and will do them all the service in their power. If I had men to spare I would send a strong body to inspect their conduct. (3 Force (5) 833)
The next day, he continued:
Bergen County is to raise a regiment to join the British Army. . . . One Bucart or some such hard name is appointed colonel and . . . they have given a specimen of their valor by shooting a Whig, one Zabriskie. . . . Every man, and I was going to say every woman, within a large circle of this place who stand for Whigs, and for ought I know are really such, are continually distressing me from their fears and apprehensions of the enemy and Tories. They are confident the latter have so much knowledge of the country as to guide a body of troops any where among the mountains., their anxiety has gone far rewards intimidating some of my own troops. (3 Force  840–41)
By December the British had withdrawn their Regulars from Hackensack and left the town to be guarded by Tories. On December 11, Colonel William Malcolm, who was in charge of Rebel troops at Tappan, wrote:
I am almost in an enemy’s country, I cannot get intelligence beyond the circle of my quarters but what is brought by my scouts. . . .The country from Tappan [south] is all in arms. On Sunday they were called together, and had Kings arms and ammunition delivered out among them. . . . I really think my party insufficient to take post at Tappan, but our friends are so distressed thereabouts that I think it an indispensable duty to attempt supporting them. . . . I hope Monday to run over the Tory ground and scatter their gangs. (3 Force  1173–74)
On December 14, General Heath, who had marched from Tappan to Hackensack with with 600 troops, wrote:
We have taken about fifty of the disaffected, and about fifty or sixty muskets, the greater part of which had been taken from the Whigs, as is supposed, and stored. (3 Force  1234–35)
In December, General Lee and his troops also belatedly crossed the Hudson River from Westchester and marched through the Clove and Mahwah to join Washington in Pennsylvania. Lee was captured by the British en route, though his troops were not. General Horatio Gates also moved his divisions from Lake Champlain through Bergen County to join Washington. On December 14, General Heath sent troops from Haverstraw to Tappan to attack the British at Hackensack. On December 19, General George Clinton moved from the Clove to Paramus and attacked Colonel Abraham Van Buskirk's Loyalist troops at English Neighborhood (Leonia) and at Bergen Woods, south of Fort Lee. Clinton meanwhile returned to Camp Ramapaugh and sent out patrols from Ringwood to Paramus.
Washington and his troops re-crossed the Delaware River from Pennsylvania and successfully attacked 1,400 Hessian soldiers in Trenton on December 25. On December 27, British and Tory troops counterattacked with a raid in Hopperstown (Ho-Ho-Kus) and Paramus, almost within sight of American troops at Ramapaugh under General Clinton, who wrote:
A number of the enemy . . . amounting to between five and eight hundred, consisting of Regulars and Buskirk’s regiment [arrive at Hackensack], after came to Paramus, plundered some of the inhabitants of that place and took the Hoppers and others of that neighborhood, who are now confined in Hackensack jail, and have since committed many acts of cruelty on the inhabitants. I keep out large patrolling parties every night in that neighborhood for the protection of the inhabitants but the enemy have so good intelligence of out thoughts and every motion that it is beyond my power to give protection to the well disposed inhabitants in any other way than by routing the enemy form their present quarters, which I have hitherto not had strength to attempt with a probability of success. (1 gc 216)
On January 3, 1777, Washington moved his forces to attack a British position in Princeton. Meanwhile, the British troops vacated their exposed position at Hackensack, and most other positions in New Jersey, to New York City while the Continental Army encamped for the winter at Morristown. Bergen County Loyalists, however, were still subjected to attacks. Colonel Levi Pawling, who was with Rebel troops in the Closter area, observed:
The good people of Bergen County lay greatly exposed to both internal and external enemies, and the internal enemies have a free recourse to New York, the center and head of all British activity in America. (1 gc 677, 701–2)
Loyalists struck back in Bergen County in the spring: at English Neighborhood (Leonia) on March 20; at Closter on April 20; at Allendale on April 23; and at Paramus on May 12. Washington sent a large contingent of New Jersey militiamen into the territory between Pompton and Hackensack on April 26 to oppose these forces. An Essex County militia also moved into Bergen County and captured Loyalists in Lyndhurst, Harrington, English Neighborhood, and Kinderkamack (Emerson).
In the early summer, General John Burgoyne led a large English force out of Canada and, on July 15, captured Fort Ticonderoga. He was marching toward Albany. At the same time, Lietenant-Colonel Barry St. Ledger moved with another English and Indian force from Canada into western New York. Washington expected General William Howe to take his British forces in New York City up the Hudson River valley to meet the other two British forces and cut the new nation in two. Thus, Washington moved his 8,000 Continental Army troops from Morristown through Pompton Plains and camped at The Ponds (Oakland) on July 14. The next day, they marched to Mahwah and Suffern. On July 15–20, Washington moved into the Clove and up to Galloway (Southfields). Instead of moving up the Hudson, however, General Howe ordered his troops south to attack Philadelphia. Washington then marched the Continentals out of the Clove, camped at Ramapaugh, and proceeded south to engage unsuccessfully Howe's forces in Pennsylvania. Also in September, Washington put Lieutenant-Colonel Aaron Burr in command of Colonel William Malcolm’s regiment stationed in the Clove.
On September 12, General Henry Clinton led British troops north out of New York City. They captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton in the Hudson highlands, and in Bergen County they attacked Hackensack and New Bridge. Burr moved his regiment from the Clove to Paramus and on September 14 attacked a British picket at Kinderkamack schoolhouse northwest of Hackensack and took prisoners to Paramus.
In mid-September, General Alexander McDougal was ordered to march his troops from Peekskill to Tappan and across Bergen County to join Washington outside Philadelphia. Washington also ordered Burr and his troops to join him in Pennsylvania. General George Clinton sent 200 militia to Ramapaugh under Major Thomas Moffatt; they conducted forays against Loyalists around Suffern and in northern Bergen County. When the British learned that General Burgoyne had been defeated at Saratoga and forced to surrender his troops in mid-October, Clinton pulled his soldiers out of the Hudson highlands forts and Bergen County and returned them to New York City.
The Continental Army spent the winter of 1778 encamped in famously miserable conditions at Valley Forge. General Henry Clinton replaced General William Howe as the British commander in Philadelphia. Clinton decided to evacuate Philadelphia to again concentrate the British forces in New York City. When the British marched north through New Jersey, Washington again brought the Continental troops across the Delaware into the state. The two armies met in a hard-fought battle at Monmouth Courthouse on June 28. Although both sides suffered many casualties, neither army was destroyed.
The British continued to New York City by way of Sandy Hook as the Continental Army marched through New Brunswick, past the Great Falls of the Passaic (Paterson), and to Paramus and Hopperstown (Ho-Ho-Kus). They encamped here for several days, and Washington accepted Theodosia Prevost’s to make The Hermitage his headquarters on July 11–14. He then proceeded by way of Saddle River, Kakiat (Rockland County), and Haverstraw to the the Hudson River and across to White Plains. New York militia units remained in the Clove during the rather quiet summer.
In late September, British troops moved into Bergen County to forage at New Bridge, Schraalenburgh (Bergenfield), Teaneck, and the English Neighborhood (Leonia). Colonel George Baylor’s 3rd Continental Virginia Dragoons, who had been staying in Paramus, moved south to Overkill (River Vale), where they were attacked and killed by the British on September 28. After the massacre, residents of the area wrote to Governor George Clinton pleading for protection:
The enemy . . . on Monday the 29th ulto. made their appearance at Tappan with a large body commanded by Cornwallis in person, and after butchering in a most inhuman manner a number of Light Horse, they turned their cruelties to women and old men, whom they treated with every kind of brutality their perfidiousness could invent. (4 gc 170–71)
The Continental Army moved across the Hudson River from Westchester and spent the winter in camp at Middle Brook, New Jersey. Colonel Thomas Clark and the 1st Carolina Regiment were posted at Paramus for the winter. Through March and into May, skirmishes took place at Closter, Little Ferry, Weehawken, Paramus, and the English Neighborhood (Leonia).
Bands of marauders who claimed loyalty to the British but acted independently of the British military most often plundered people with Patriot sympathies but occasionally foraged and robbed other Loyalists. Two of these maurauders, William Cole and Thomas Welcher, became famous throughout Bergen County for robbery, housebreaking, pocket picking, and horse stealing. They were tried and hanged in April at Hackensack.
In May, British troops under General Henry Clinton moved up the Hudson and took the fortifications at Stony Point. The main body of the Continental Army moved from Middle Brook through Pompton and Ringwood to the Clove. Troops under Colonel Henry Lee and Baron Johann De Kalb were posted in Suffern. The various segments of the Continental Army, often short on food and supplies, foraged among the residents of the territories through which they passed, including Bergen County. Twice in May and again in June, British and Loyalist troops also conducted foraging raids into the eastern part of Bergen County, launching a drive that extended toward Paramus Church:
The detachment of the enemy that landed in Bergen County on Monday . . . consisted of about 1,000 men, composed of several different corps, under the command of Col[onel] Van Buskirk. Their path in this incursion was marked with desolation and unprovoked cruel murders. Not a house with their reach belonging to a Whig inhabitant escaped. Mr. Abraham Allen and George Campbell fell a prey to these more than savage men. Two negro women, who were endeavoring to drive off some cattle belonging to their masters, were also murdered. Mr Joost Zabriskie was stabbed in thirteen different places. (Damages by British, njsl, Hackensack Precinct no. 10 on 3 nja  391)
Samuel Demarest, a highly placed Loyalist, was repelled by the actions of Tory raiders in Bergen County. In the spring 1779, he described the raids as a
scene marked by circumstances of savage barbarity. . . . Jersey refugees,—they breathe nothing but fire and sword, and desolations—and those whom an ungovernable and rapacious soldiery have already plundered, they are for utterly destroying. . . . Everything that comes in their way is plunder, and its owner a damned rebel. (3 nja  426, 428)
In July, General Anthony Wayne led Rebel troops in capturing the British garrison at Stony Point. In August, Colonel Henry Lee moved his troops from the Clove to an encampment at Paramus and then marched by way of New Bridge and the English Neighborhood to mount a successful surprise attack on the British fortification at Paulus Hook (Jersey City). During the fall, Virginia troops who had been posted in the Clove, together with troops led by General John Sullivan, marched south through Ramapaugh and foraged as they moved through Bergen County. In November, General Wayne and his troops also foraged at Paramus, New Bridge, and south of Fort Lee while Washington moved the Continental Army from West Point to Morristown. In November, a member of Wayne’s staff sent a report on the activities of the troops in the Paramus area:
Our Brigade has not been backward on their part in regard to divers irregularities and indecencies. They have indiscriminately stripped the neighbors of their corn, milk, ducks, fowls, etc, etc, and that too even in the sight and under the very noses of the owners. (Johnston to Wayne, October 29, 1779, Wayne Papers hsp)
The Continental Army wintered again at Morristown in 1780 while Colonel Levi Pawling commanded troops stationed in the Clove. Residents of Bergen County continued to feel vulnerable to attacks from the British and the Loyalists. Not only did they expect continued encroachments, but they knew that British had detailed information from neighboring Loyalists on all Patriot troop locations and of every house inhabited by a supporter of the Rebel cause, and they had guides who could point these houses out to the invading British. In February, a Loyalist agent who went by the code name “AZ” reported to Major-General William Tryon, commander of British provincial troops in the New York–New Jersey area:
The best guide there can possible be is Stephen Ryder, who may be depended upon. Theunis Blauvelt, a very enterprising, discreet and good young man, is perfectly acquainted from here to Wagaraw, but Ryder can find the most proper persons whenever they may be required.....They could [capture] there...between two hundred and two hundred fifty....Meanwhile I can furnish you with a map of the roads that lead to Paramus by the routes I have described. (AZ to Tyron, Feb. 6–7, 1780, British Transcripts lc).
Consequently, residents of the Hackensack area wrote to General Philip Schulyer:
We . . . magistrates, sheriff and officers of militia . . . residing at Hackensack and its vicinity . . . make application to you for a detachment or party from your command to assist in protecting us and our neighbors, the well-affected inhabitants to the American cause against the incursions and depredations of small parties of the enemy and their vile abettors, the Refugees.
We are credibly informed that the enemy have in contemplation to make an attack and incursion on the inhabitants of Hackensack within five days. . . . The well-affected inhabitants, though willing to risk their persons in defense of their property, are too few in number . . . for the purpose of repelling the enemies’ parties or keeping up continual guards and scout for their security. (Varick to Schuyler, February 10, 1780,Schuyler Papers
In March, the British launched a two-pronged attack into Bergen County. One unit landed at Weehawken and proceeded to Hackensack, where the troops burned the courthouse and several other buildings and captured many Rebel sympathizers. The other unit landed at Closter, marched through Pascack (Woodcliff Lake) and Werimus (Saddle River) and approached Paramus, where a contingent of Pennsylvania troops was stationed. The British, with 300 men, scattered the defending Pennsylvania unit. However, as the British soldiers marched back toward New York City, the Pennsylvania soldiers harassed them along the route. Patriot reinforcements were sent to Paramus, but not to Hackensack.
In late March, the British launched another attack in Bergen County, sending a detachment to Hackensack:
The British Captain Thorn ordered his men to attack every house that should be pointed out to them by the guides and refugees, and here to remain until the detachment returned from Paramus, and I have the pleasure to inform your excellency that the plan had the desired effect, the militia and the inhabitants being catched in their beds.(McPherson Report, March 23, 1780, hc Papers)
Meanwhile, according to a British report, the Rebel troops at Paramus fled in the face of the British attack on their position. The report stated:
As our soldiers had been greatly fatigued with a march of near eighteen miles, after pursuing them a mile and a half and taking twenty prisoners, as I found nothing more could be effected, ordered the men back to Paramus Bridge. (Howard to Matthews, March 24, 1780, hc Papers cl)
A report from the Rebel side stated:
As soon as the enemy found their intentions were frustrated, they seemed more disposed to plunder than pursue us and immediately commenced their retreat from the church down the Hackensack road, plundering indiscriminately (Stuart to Washington, March 25, 1780, gw Papers lc)
In April, the British launched another attack in the same area. A cavalry unit landed at Bergen Point and marched north to meet an infantry unit that had crossed the Hudson at Fort Lee. The 700 man combined force of British, German, and Loyalist soldiers scattered a small rebel militia unit at New Bridge, then overran a picket of Continental soldiers stationed at the bridge over the Saddle River just below the Paramus church. At Hopperstown, a British force of some 600 men attacked a Pennsylvania regiment with 250 men at Hopperstown and scattered them. The Patriots reported that the people of Hopperstown suffered casualties and losses during the attack:
The enemy, agreeable to their usual mode of procedure plundered and burnt the house and mill of Mr. John Hopper and that of his brother’s. In the former the family of Mr. Abraham Brasher lived...The commanding officer being requested by Mrs. Brasher on her knees to spare the house, he damn’d her, and bid her begone, declaring they all deserved to be bayoneted. They made their boast, that as Major Byles did not present the hilt of his sword in front when surrendering, they shot him. (4 nja  379–80).
In May, the Marquis de Lafayette rode through the Clove to Morristown to announce to Washington that a large French naval force would arrive at Newport, Rhode Island, to support the colonists’ war effort. Washington decided to move his Continental troops toward the Hudson for a possible assault on New York City. They proceeded to Whippany and on June 26 camped in Mahwah, where they remained until July 1, when they continued on to Colonel Theunis Dey’s home in Preakness (Wayne).
The French fleet arrived in Newport on July 10. However, Washington and the French officers were unable to develop a joint military operation for 1780. The Continentals kept on the move throughout August and September, and the soldiers foraged for food. A great deal of correspondence deals with the soldier’s effect on the local population. While the troops were in Tappan, for instance, Justice John Haring wrote to Washington:
Cornfields, buckwheat, orchards, meadows, etc. etc. are laid waste, and we know not where it will end. (19 gw 358n; 19 gw 358)
Washington's priority, however, was feeding his troops. While Generals Greene and Lafayette were in Teaneck and Leonia, and farther south in Bergen County, he ordered a thorough forage:
Such are the necessities of the army, and such the situation of the inhabitants, being all within the power of the enemy, that you will make the forage as extensive as possible in the articles of hay and grain, as well as in cattle, hogs and sheep fit for slaughter; and horses fit for the use of the army. (19 gw 431–32)
However, the soldiers sometimes went too far, as Greene reported:
There has been committed some of the most horrid acts of plunder by some of the Pennsylvania Line that has disgraced the American army during the war. . . . Two soldiers were taken that were out upon the business, both of which fired upon the inhabitants to prevent their giving intelligence. A party plundered a house yesterday in sight of a number of officers, and even threatened the officers if they offered to interfere. (Nathanael Greene to Washington, August 26, 1780, gw Papers lc).
Another Patriot officer wrote:
The country between us and the enemy (Bergen County), and below him, has been pretty thoroughly gleaned by us of the little the enemy left there. We call this foraging, but it is only a gentle name for plundering. (Shaw Journal 76).
Finally, Major John Goetschius reported to Washington:
The wicked and inconsiderate soldiery [were[ entirely destroying the Schraalenburgh neighborhood. . . . They have within this three days robbed the inhabitants of Schraalenburgh neighborhood of five or six head of cattle, a number of sheep, hogs and fowl, and almost all their corn, potatoes and other vegetables, and in a violent manner abuse the well-affected in this place, running about with clubs and bayonets upon pikes by whole companies as bad as our enemies ever have done. (Goetschius to Washington, September 30, 1780, gw Papers lc)
On July 21, General Anthony Wayne led 1,800 troops in an attack on the British blockhouse at Bull’s Ferry (Guttenberg) but failed to dislodge the defenders. The British evacuated the fortification later in the summer, burned it, and moved to Fort Delancey in Bergen Neck. At the same time, Major John Andre was arranging for General Benedict Arnold to surrender West Point to British. The plot was discovered in late September; Arnold escaped, but Andre was captured. He was tried and hanged at Tappan on October 2.
In the final winter of the war, Washington quartered a large portion of his troops at New Windsor, New York, just north of West Point. Pennsylvania troops were stationed at Morristown, and New Jersey troops were stationed at Pompton. In January, the poor conditions resulted in mutiny among the Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops. Washington sent soldiers from West Point to restore order. Two sergeants were executed by firing squad on January 27, 1781, for their part in the mutiny, while a third man was given a last-minute reprieve.
In March, Loyalists attacked Closter and were driven off by local militiamen. In another engagement, a British contingent sailed to Moonachie Point, just south of Hackensack, and were routed by a local militia. In May 1781, some 100 Loyalists from New York City started to build a blockhouse at Fort Lee from which to launch raids into Bergen County. Several hundred rebels under the command of Colonel Theunis Dey and Major John Goetschius attacked them and retook the fort.
General Washington and French officers crossed and recrossed Bergen County during the summer evaluating possibilities for an attack on New York City. When they learned that the French fleet was planning to sail to Chesapeake Bay to blockade the British army of General Charles Cornwallis, they French decided to support that effort by moving their forces to Virginia. The allied armies crossed the Hudson at Kings Ferry and marched to Suffern. The Patriots then proceeded south by way of Mahwah, Ramsey, Paramus, New Brunswick, and Princeton. The French traveled through The Ponds, Pompton, and Morristown and met the Americans at Princeton. Both forces then proceeded to Virginia and to the decisive Battle of Yorktown.
Although the war the north had ended, a Patriot sympathizer later wrote:
The hostilities continued in Bergen County until the very end of the war. It was reported that in late winter 1783 a company of patriot soldiers were marching to English Neighborhood, and not expecting to meet with an enemy, as peace was expected and it was thought that hostilities had ceased, was fired upon by a party of the British refugees and Tories, who lay in ambush, but fortunately all escaped unhurt but one man who was wounded in the knee and taken prisoner. (Affidavit of John I. Blauvelt, Pension Records, W20721)
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